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Vitalik Buterin: ZK-SNARKs and other technologies are inefficient, and Ethereum aims to achieve real-time proofs

Vitalik Buterin, the founder of Ethereum, gave a keynote speech titled "Reaching the Limits of Protocol Design" at the 2024 Hong Kong Web3 Carnival. Vitalik Buterin stated that technologies such as ZK-SNARKs, MPC, and FHE have efficiency and security issues. Ethereum's slot block time is 12 seconds, the average block verification time is about 400 milliseconds, and the ZK-SNARK proof time is about 20 minutes. Ethereum's goal is to achieve real-time proof. Regarding the current low efficiency issue, Vitalik stated that the solution is "parallelization and aggregation trees", using SNARK algos and hash to improve efficiency, and using ASIC for ZK hardware acceleration.

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